HomeDisease PreventionWhat Is Thyromegaly and How to Treat It?

What Is Thyromegaly and How to Treat It?

What is Thyromegaly?

Thyromegaly refers to the enlargement of the thyroid gland. To understand it better, let us know what the thyroid is first.

The thyroid is one of the endocrine glands responsible for releasing hormones into the body. 

It is on the neck, notably around the front of the windpipe, and looks like a butterfly.

What Is Thyromegaly
What Is Thyromegaly

Diiodothyronine (T2), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine are hormones produced by the thyroid gland (T4). 

These hormones impact the body’s basal metabolic rate, protein synthesis, blood flow rate, body temperature, fetal and child development, sexual function, sleep cycle, and cognitive processes. 

Additionally, it creates the hormone calcitonin, which controls blood calcium levels.

Additionally, the thyroid can develop diseases that can devastate the body, just like any other organ. 

One of these conditions is thyromegaly, sometimes known as a goiter or enlargement of the thyroid gland. 

Enlargement may be due to hyperthyroidism or benign or malignant thyroid neoplasm.

Let us understand some basic things about the thyroid gland and what Is Thyromegaly, also known as goiter.

The thyroid gland is enlarged in thyromegaly, also known as goiter, and can lead to several health issues.

Smoking is one of the major causes of the thiocyanate in cigarette smoke that prevents iodine from being absorbed and can expand the thyroid gland.

Types of Thyromegaly

Now let us understand about types of Thyromegaly.

What are Thyromegaly Types?

There are four main types of thyromegaly: diffuse, multinodular, toxic, and benign. 

Diffuse thyromegaly is an enlargement of the entire thyroid gland, which is a swelling of the thyroid gland. Both excessive and insufficient thyroid activity are linked to these goiters.

Multinodular thyromegaly is a thyroid gland enlargement with multiple lumps or nodules. Multiple nodules form in the thyroid in a condition known as multinodular goiter.

Toxic thyromegaly is an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to a build-up of thyroid hormone. 

Benign thyromegaly is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not cancerous.

The retrosternal goiter can develop behind the breastbone, which may require surgery since it can narrow the esophagus, neck veins, or windpipe.

The various symptoms and course of treatment will depend on the type of goiter.

Symptoms of Thyromegaly

What Is Thyromegaly Symptom?

There are many potential symptoms of thyromegaly, as the condition can cause several problems with the thyroid gland and the surrounding structures.


Some of the more common symptoms include:

  • A feeling of fullness or pressure in the neck
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Pain in the neck
  • Hoarseness
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck

These levels are above or below what is considered normal, which frequently indicates a thyroid or endocrine system issue. 

Additionally, abnormal test results typically point to enlargement of the thyroid. Most of the time, a swollen thyroid won’t appear in the beginning. This is why it is advised to visit the doctor for a checkup if any of the main conditions occur: poor breath, pain, nauseous, a change in voice quality, a stiff or tight throat, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, a fever, or a cough.

Identification of thyromegaly

What Is Thyromegaly Identification?

A straightforward physical check of the neck may be sufficient to identify a thyromegaly condition. 

The patient is asked to swallow while the doctor feels the neck during the examination. 

Further investigation will be done to identify the underlying cause if it is discovered that the thyroid gland is enlarged. 

The following may be required to determine the underlying cause of a thyromegaly condition:

Thyroid hormone function tests are performed to determine the blood levels of T3, T4, and TSH to produce a picture of the thyroid gland using ultrasound technology.

Thyroid Using a radioactive isotope injected into a vein inside the elbow, a radioiodine scan produces an image of the thyroid on a computer screen.

In addition, it can also be identified as a small sample of thyroid tissue being removed with a fine needle for laboratory analysis during a thyroid fine needle biopsy.

What principal factors give rise to thyromegaly?

What are Thyromegaly causes?

Various environmental, genetic, and nutritional variables can result in thyromegaly. The following list includes the disease’s most often analyzed causes:

Autoimmune disorders: Under a few pathological circumstances, the body’s immune system may attack the thyroid gland’s cells and related enzymes. The number of hormone levels needed cannot be produced by the remaining thyroid cells and enzymes.


In a small number of cancer patients, the thyroid gland is partially or wholly removed surgically to stop the spread of cancerous cells. When this occurs, the thyroid gland cannot produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s needs.


Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone released during childbearing that can make the thyroid gland hyperactive and slightly enlarged.

Family health background

Goiter risk is increased by a family medical history of the condition or other thyroid conditions. Researchers have also discovered genetic variables that might be linked to a higher risk.

Radiological exposure

When you’ve had chemotherapy and radiation to your chest or neck, your risk goes up.

Born with a deformity.

Few newborns have thyroid glands that are deformed or partially developed at birth. In rare instances, the thyroid glands may not exist or may be positioned improperly (ectopic thyroid). 

Other times, the thyroid cells or enzymes don’t work as they should. Any of these conditions may cause an enlarged thyroid gland.

Iodine deficiency

Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid function, which is involved in human balance and optimal mental and physical growth. 

They control various critical biological processes, particularly protein synthesis and enzymatic activity. 

The main focus organs are the developing brain, muscles, heart, pituitary, and kidney. 

Thyromegaly may result from an iodine deficiency in the body or a daily iodine-deficient diet.


When solid or liquid-filled nodules develop on the thyroid gland, this can also cause the gland to enlarge. 

Multinodular goiter is the term used to describe a thyroid condition where there are multiple nodules. 

Solitary thyroid nodules are those in which there is only one nodule.

Although these nodules are often benign and benign (noncancerous), they have the potential to produce excessive thyroid hormone.

Pituitary gland disorders:

The pituitary controls the thyroid gland’s process of producing hormones. 

Pituitary gland disorders can affect the function of any pituitary gland hormones. As a result, pituitary gland disorders can cause problems in many-body systems.

Pituitary adenomas are benign (noncancerous) tumors of the pituitary gland. They can cause the pituitary gland to produce too much or too little hormone.

Pituitary gland disturbances may be brought on by radiotherapy, cancerous tumors, or operations that could result in thyromegaly.

Treatment of Thyromegaly:

What Is Thyromegaly Treatment?

The treatment depends on the goiter’s underlying etiology, symptoms, and side effects. 

Treatment is typically unnecessary for little goiters that are unnoticeable and don’t pose any issues. 

The doctor may take a “wait-and-see” stance while urging the patients to make the required dietary modifications. 

The primary treatment for thyromegaly is targeted medication. Many drugs can be used to reduce the size of the thyroid gland, and the most common include:

Note: You Must Visit A Doctor Before Taking Below Mentioned Medicine

Levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levothroid)

Levothyroxine is a synthetic artificial hormone that mirrors the activity of the hormone thyroxine (also known as T4). In addition to its replacement therapy in hypothyroidism, levothyroxine is used to treat congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism) and goiter (enlarged thyroid gland).

What is the most important information I should know about levothyroxine?

Levothyroxine can increase the risk of dangerous irregular heart rhythms. Be sure to keep all appointments with your doctor. Your doctor will order specific lab tests to check your response to levothyroxine. Do not take this medication if you are allergic to levothyroxine or any ingredients in this medication.

How should I take levothyroxine?

Levothyroxine comes as a tablet and a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach, 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast. Take your dose with a full glass (8 ounces) of water unless your doctor directs you otherwise. Swallow the tablet or capsule whole. If you are unable to swallow the tablet or capsule

This medication treats people with hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone).

It is also used with surgery and radioiodine therapy to treat thyroid cancer.

This medication works by replacing thyroid hormone.

Side effects are rare but may include:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle cramps
  • Increased appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Weight gain
  • Sweating
  • Tremor
  • Mood changes
  • Changes in menstrual periods
  • Hair loss
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
  • Rash
  • Itching
  • Hives
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing

Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs

  • Hoarseness
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Flushing
  • Sweating
  • Muscle weakness
  • Fever
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

Take this medicine by mouth with a full glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Swallow the medicine whole. Do not take more or less medication than ordered. Do not take two doses at the same time unless told to do so by your doctor. If a child cannot swallow a capsule, the capsule can be opened, and the medicine sprinkled on a small amount (1 teaspoon) of applesauce. Swallow all of the mixtures right away. Do not save for future use.

To help you remember to take your medicine, take it at around the same time every day. For example, if you take it once a day, try to take it at about the same time each day.

Do not take this medicine for more than two weeks in a row. If you need to retake this medicine, wait at least three months before you start the treatment again.

Other Medicines are :

  • Liotrix (Thyrolar)
  • Liothyronine (Cytomel)
  • Methimazole (Tapazole)

The dosage and frequency of the medication will be based on the individual case. If the cause of the thyromegaly is cancerous, surgery may be needed to remove the thyroid gland.

Potassium iodide may be administered if the person has low iodine levels. The doctor could recommend medications to treat thyroid gland enlargement.

Does it lead to cancer?

Thyroid cancer can be rare, but it may be rooted in a nodule on the thyroid. According to studies, eight percent of nodule cancer might happen in males and only four percent in females.

Why do nodules become the cause of cancer; however, the answer is not confirmed; hence it is possible that a nodule causes thyromegaly on the gland and can lead to cancer. 

A thyroid nodule biopsy can identify whether or not the nodule is cancerous.


  1. What is thyromegaly?

    Thyromegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland.

  2. Which condition is also known as thyromegaly?


  3. what is mild thyromegaly?

    Mild thyromegaly is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not causing any symptoms.

  4. Can a mild thyromegaly become worse?

    Yes, mild thyromegaly can worsen and cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or a feeling of pressure in the neck.

  5. How to check for thyromegaly?

    A physical examination of the neck can often reveal an enlarged thyroid gland. A thyroid scan may also be ordered to check for thyromegaly.

  6. Is thyromegaly expected with atrial fibrillation?

    No, thyromegaly is not expected with atrial fibrillation.

  7. Should thyromegaly be treated during pregnancy

    Thyromegaly should be treated during pregnancy to prevent complications such as preeclampsia or premature birth.

  8. What diet causes goiter and thyromegaly?

    A diet that is low in iodine can cause goiter and thyromegaly.

  9. What is a thyromegaly icd 10?

    The ICD-10 code for thyromegaly is E05.0.

  10. What is a thyromegaly test?

    There is no specific thyromegaly test. A physical examination of the neck can often reveal an enlarged thyroid gland, and a thyroid scan may also be ordered to check for thyromegaly.

  11. What is bilateral thyromegaly?

    Bilateral thyromegaly is an enlargement of both thyroid glands.

  12. What is borderline thyromegaly?

    Borderline thyromegaly is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not causing any symptoms.

  13. What is diffuse thyromegaly?

    Diffuse thyromegaly is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that causes symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or a feeling of pressure in the neck.

  14. What is thyromegaly with diffuse parenchymal disease?

    Thyromegaly with diffuse parenchymal disease is an enlargement of the thyroid gland with the diffuse parenchymal disease, which is a condition that affects the thyroid gland.

  15. Why is there thyromegaly in hypothyroidism?

    There can be thyromegaly in hypothyroidism because the thyroid gland is enlarged in this condition. Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The condition can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disease, radiation therapy, or surgical thyroid gland removal. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, and constipation. Treatment of hypothyroidism involves taking thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The condition can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disease, radiation therapy, or surgical thyroid gland removal.

What is Thyromegaly? Watch Video

About The Author

Judy Lexie
Judy Lexiehttps://health.gd/
Hi there! I'm Judy Lexie, a passionate health and fitness content writer with over 5 years of experience in the industry. As a personal trainer and nutrition consultant, I'm dedicated to empowering individuals to achieve their health and wellness goals through evidence-based, practical advice.

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